GR Denny and Son Structure Relocators

What is a Community Land Trust?

A community land trust (CLT) is a nonprofit, tax-exempt community-based organization that holds land in trust and stewards the use. Community land trusts use the land to meet community needs; this flexible model can be modified to address housing affordability, as well as for gardens, rental or retail spaces, even historic preservation, as examples.  To meet these goals into the future CLTs retain permanent ownership of the land.

When homes are sold the CLT and the new owner enter into a long-term (usually 99-year), renewable and inheritable ground lease for the home owner’s exclusive use of the land.  When the home is going to be sold, the resale formula agreed to in the ground lease is used to set the sale price. This formula allows the seller to earn a portion of increased property value. The remaining increase in value is retained by the CLT and allows it to continue to offer the house to lower to moderate-income households one sale after another.

Separating the land ownership from the “improvements” and having a resale formula removes the market forces that often make prices rise above what community members can afford.  CLTs take a long-term approach to meeting community needs and land ownership.  There are currently more than 250 community land trusts across the United States and Internationally.

Why TCLT Benefits Flagstaff

Finding an affordable home is a challenge for many Flagstaff residents. Land prices are high and demand exceeds the supply. As a result, it is very difficult for many residents —from working people, to families and retirees—to buy a home of their own, especially a historic home in an established neighborhood.

Surprisingly, some of our most valued citizens like firefighters, police officers, teachers, nurses, office staff, small business owners, and others who provide vital services are unable to purchase homes in Flagstaff. This erodes our community and forces people to have to move to other towns that are more affordable.

The Townsite Community Land Trust (TCLT) addresses this issue by separating ownership of the home from the land. The community directed nonprofit owns the land and sells the homes at an affordable price to eligible and financially qualified permanent Flagstaff residents. Home owners accept certain restrictions such as a limited return on future sales in order to make the home ownership opportunity available to all future buyers.

TCLT focuses on the restoration and maintenance of Flagstaff’s historic buildings and character. Through TCLT, Flagstaffs historic structures become valuable community assets as permanently affordable homes.


Land costs are excluded from home price

One reason houses in Flagstaff are expensive is because of the land. The CLT model takes care of that by the tax-exempt nonprofit retaining ownership of the land. The qualified household buys only the house. The homeowners enter into a 99-year, renewable, and inheritable ground lease, giving them exclusive use of the land under their home.

Home prices are subsidized to create more affordability

Lower-to-moderate income citizens of Flagstaff contribute in many ways to the vitality and diversity of our community, but they cannot purchase even a modest home in Flagstaff. By becoming members and donating funds, the rest of our community can support this initiative to help create affordable homes.

Homeowners receive built-in savings

The TCLT model is built to help homeowners save money through energy efficiencies and tax advantages from being an owner-occupied historic property, allowing owners to build personal savings.

Participation in community stewardship

Stewardship of the properties and the households is the reason CLT homeowners are statistically more successful regarding staying in their homes than conventional homeowners, even during difficult financial times.

Ability to set down roots in Flagstaff

Many people play vital roles in our community, but the housing market makes it difficult for them to put down roots.


This starts with education about CLT ownership and buying through TCLT before they purchase. And after they’re moved in, there are annual check-ins to help with physical maintenance and financial success. The whole point is to invest in Flagstaff home owners and their ability to be active community members.

Why TCLT Benefits Homeowners

Additional benefits of TCLT Home Ownership

Lower Purchase Prices

Sales process

  • The price is non-negotiable so no realtor is needed
  • Because TCLT has subsidized (lowered) the price at least 20% below fee simple appraisal buyer does not need to pay for private mortgage insurance

Land Lease

  • The cost of TCLT homes is lower because Townsite CLT owns the land under the house–holds it in trust for the community
  • Buyers sign a 99-year, renewable, and inheritable ground lease for exclusive use of the land

Home Value

  • Stewardship by TCLT protects the community’s investment
  • Stewardship by TCLT protects the home owner’s investment
  • Return at sale is based upon the Resale Formula described in the Ground Lease.  The amount is guaranteed when the homeowner maintains the property, irrespective of the conventional real estate market
  • The resale formula is designed to insure the community investment to lower the price does not need to be repeated with future sales
  • Affordability remains with the house from one buyer to the next

Lower Utilities and Taxes

  • Each home restoration includes energy-efficient upgrades, so our home owners enjoy lower utility bills
  • Owner-occupied registered historic homes can request from the County to have significantly lower property taxes – which are paid on only the house.  For more information, click here

Safer Home Buying

Building Equity

TCLT homeowners build equity at the rate of 1.5% compounded annually.  This fixed rate resale formula allows the owner to grow the money tied to the home but also leaves the affordability that allowed them to buy the home for the next household.

This resale formula was chosen to incentivize long-term residency, something needed in our historic neighborhoods.

Our resale formula

  • Keeps homes affordable for future buyers
  • Allows homeowners to earn a profit
  • Encourages long-term ownership
Purchase Price $205,600
Annual Interest Rate    1.5% Compounded Annually    Seller’s Appreciation
1    $208,684    $3,084 .
2    $211,814    $6,214
5    $221,490    $15,890
15    $257,048    $51,448 .
20    $276,913    $71,313
30    $321,369    $115,769

How Do I Calculate Compound Interest?

Compound interest (or compounding interest) is interest calculated on

  • The initial principal (purchase price minus the down payment)
  • The accumulated interest of previous periods of your deposit or loan
  • Use this calculator to help you find potential compound interest

What Will I Earn Back on Resale?

  • Your down payment
  • The equity your have built through monthly mortgage payments
  • Minus repairs necessary to make the house move-in ready for the next owner


How TCLT Works

TCLT acquires historic properties, renovates them for contemporary livability and energy efficiency, while preserving their cherished historic character. TCLT is governed by a tripartite board made up of TCLT home owners, neighbors, and professional advocates.

Read more about the Board of Directors.


Owners of TCLT homes agree to use the property as outlined in the ground lease, pay a small monthly ground lease fee and contribute to a home repair loan fund. Properties are stewarded by the organization, as needed. A fixed-rate formula ensures owners a fair return upon resale and guarantees that homes remain affordable for all future buyers. TCLT homes must be owner occupied throughout the year.


Once a home has been purchased, TCLT helps homeowners achieve long-term stability through regular stewardship which includes:

  • An annual survey of the property exterior
  • Referrals to financial counseling services, such as budgeting and foreclosure prevention, if needed
  • Special activities for each property. For example, the 4 Square property has community gardening days
  • Annual letter estimating your property’s value if sold
  • Invitations to TCLT opportunities such as trainings on saving money and investing
  • Invitation to TCLT annual meeting
  • Opportunity to serve on TCLT’s tripartite Board of Directors

Potential buyers apply to purchase a home by:

  • Attending the required Orientation Class
  • Meeting income eligibility and other qualifications
  • Participating in required homebuyer education
  • Completing the application process; among additional requirements

Who is a Part of TCLT


Flagstaff residents and everyone who values Flagstaff’s history and future.

Board of Directors

TCLT is governed by a three-part Board of Directors:
TCLT homeowners or other people with lower incomes; TCLT neighbors; Professional advocates.

This mix of community members ensures that we address the range of community interests. But the mix also provides the support necessary to make our organization thrive!

Duffie Westheimer

Duffie has always lived in historic neighborhoods.  She likes to be where the ghosts are.  She learned to love architecture and explore communities during long walks around Cincinnati with her father.  Flagstaff has been her home for 40 years.  Duffie spearheaded creating Flagstaff’s first and currently only local Historic Residential District for the Townsite neighborhood.  She is conducting the Townsite Oral History Project.  Those two projects led her to found Townsite CLT.  She holds degrees in Studio Art, Geography, Applied Cultural Anthropology and Museum Studies.  Since finishing an MA she has continued her education with courses in Community Land Trusts, and Historic Preservation.  Duffie and her family live in a 1940s Townsite neighborhood house constructed with ammunition boxes discarded by the Navajo Ordnance Depot west of Flagstaff.  She served on the Southwest Oral History Association Board and the Arizona Historical Society Northern Chapter Board of Directors.  She is currently on the Northern Arizona Pioneers’ Historical Society Board of Directors.

Charlie Silver

Charlie Silver came to Northern Arizona in 1976 to film and document the building of a community school house on the Navajo Nation.  Three years later he moved to Northern Arizona full time, eventually migrating from the Navajo Nation, to Winslow, to Flagstaff.  Charlie worked in Flagstaff’s last sawmill, construction, as a wildlands firefighter, set up many of the City of Flagstaff’s first computers, as a librarian, and as an intellectual property liaison for a major US Corporation.  He can often be found at City Council meetings monitoring issues especially around the City’s zoning code, development activity, affordable housing, and social justice.  Charlie, was a co-recipient with Duffie Westheimer, of the 2017 Livable Community Award sponsored by Friends of Flagstaff’s Future. He is or has also been on the Boards of The Literacy Center, Friends of the Flagstaff Public Library, and Stand Up for Flagstaff.

Eric Souders

Eric Souders is an Accredited Wealth Management Advisor at Ascendant Financial Solutions. He is concerned about the wealth inequality and neoliberalism that is shaping our local and national economies. He is an outspoken supporter of Flagstaff’s increased minimum wage ordinance and a strong proponent for socially responsible investing. He has been a board member of Friends of Flagstaff’s Future and Willow Bend. Additionally, for many years, he has been the 4H llama project leader as well as the llama superintendent at the Coconino County Fair.

John Ruggles

Since 1966 I have been involved with various preservation efforts in New Hampshire and Arizona. My work has ranged from preserving the Mt. Washington Railway’s passenger cars to restoring and building replica lighting fixtures for the Grand Canyon El Tovar Hotel. Researching and documenting fabrication techniques and methods has been an integral part of these projects. I was also involved with securing historic neighborhood status for the Phoenix Woodlea development. I have served on boards and committees involved with historic preservation, the county zoning code and comprehensive plan updates, and worked with municipal and county planning departments to further preservation goals. I am currently a Coconino County Planning and Zoning Commissioner and serve on the Doney Park Area Plan committee to further the goals of preserving the unique qualities of our area.

CJ Lucke

“Preservation contributes much to a forgetful society.” — National Trust for Historic Preservation

Having been born in Phoenix in the early 1960’s, I treasure the steps taken by others to preserve buildings and areas that were important to the development and history of the now sprawling city.  As a recent resident of Flagstaff, I want to volunteer my time to help move TCLT forward.  Seeing people work two or three jobs and not be able to afford to buy a house is a situation that needs to be addressed and TCLT is helping address that issue in a unique way.  We are in a limited time period where we can work to preserve the small town college feel of Flagstaff, preserve history and also look for answers on affordable housing.  Prior to relocating to Flagstaff, I worked in local government for 25 years and learned about water districts and water rights, transportation planning and other critical municipal issues.  I hope to bring that experience to this position and work to preserve the best parts of Flagstaff for this generation and the next.

Melissa Eckstrom

Melissa was fortunate enough to become a homeowner through the Townsite Community Land Trust (TCLT) in 2021. Originally from Philadelphia, PA, Melissa holds a B.A in Sustainable Agriculture from Sterling College in Craftsbury Common, VT. She served in AmeriCorps National Civilian Community Corps in the American Midwest, as well as the United States Peace Corps in Jamaica. Melissa currently works at Willow Bend Environmental Education Center as the Education and Outreach Coordinator.  She enjoys gardening, bicycling, and making art in her free time. As TCLT homeowners, Melissa and her husband are looking forward to building many memories watching their infant son grow in their home. As a TCLT board member, Melissa looks forward to the opportunity to strengthen ties within her community by supporting the Townsite Community Land Trust’s mission. She is also currently on the Flagstaff Foodlink Board of Directors.

Who is Eligible and Financially Qualified to Purchase a TCLT Home?

Our goal is to help members of our community whose income limits their ability to buy a home in Flagstaff, Arizona.


Applicants must:

  • Be 18 years or older
  • Be a US citizen or permanent legal resident
  • Have not owned a home in the last three years
  • Have lived in the Flagstaff metropolitan area for one year or
    have worked in the Flagstaff metropolitan area for two years

Source, City of Flagstaff, Flagstaff Metropolitan Planning Organization

Financial Qualifications

  • Your gross income is no more than 125% of the Flagstaff Area Median Income 

Residents must have an income no more than 125% of the Flagstaff Area Median Income (AMI) for the latest year published. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Arizona Department of Housing, and the City of Flagstaff determine AMI. Here is the current AMI for Flagstaff.

2022 Flagstaff Area Median Income (AMI)
Source: City of Flagstaff

Household Size




















Determining Income

TCLT screens applicants based on their income and assets.

  • Income: If your annual gross income is at or below 125%, then you may qualify to purchase a TCLT home
  • Assets: However, if you also have assets like investments or savings that put your income over that 125%, then you may not qualify–most retirement investments that restrict use of the funds are excluded from this total
  • You qualify for a fixed-rate loan for a CLT (lease-hold) property
  • You can pay the minimum of a 3% down payment
  • Your front-end ratio (housing costs-to-income) does not exceed 28%
  • Your back-end ratio (debt-to-income) does not exceed 35%
  • Your savings is between 8% and 250% of your household income after buying the house

I’m not sure if I am eligible or qualify.

Please check with us if you think you may be eligible and qualify, but you are not sure. For example, if your income is low, but you have saved significant funds for a down payment, you may qualify. For some situations services such as down payment assistance may be available.

Flagstaff’s Housing Solutions of Northern Arizona offers housing assistance programs. See their programs here.

How can I become a TCLT Homeowner?

Steps to become a TCLT homeowner:

Step 1: Explore the Model by attending a TCLT Orientation Class and decide if this model makes sense for you and your family

  • Understand the ground lease, and be willing to abide by its terms
  • Understand the resale formula that gives you a limited return on your investment when you sell
  • Attend the TCTL Orientation Class and pick up an application

Step 2: Determine If You Are Eligible and Qualified

  • Do you meet all the eligibility requirements?
  • Do you meet the financial qualifications?

If you aren’t sure, contact us. We’ll either confirm your eligibility and financial qualifications, or we can help you make a plan to become eligible and qualified.

Step 3: Apply

  • Obtain a pre-qualification letter for a fixed-rate CLT eligible (lease-hold) mortgage

Contact our loan specialist to see if you qualify:

Brian Morse
Loan Consultant
D: 707.303.2913

  • Complete the application
    • Contact TCLT if you need technical support
    • Use the application checklist to ensure that the application is complete before submitting–only complete applications received by the deadline will be considered for the current home(s)

Step 4: Application Evaluation and (possible) Interview


  • Submit a complete application to TCLT, PO BOX 234, Flagstaff, AZ 86002 by the deadline written on page 1

Evaluation and Interview

  • TCLT evaluates all applications equally
  • You may be contacted if additional information is required, or for an interview
  • Our goal is to notify all applicants of their status within a month
    • If we cannot move you forward to purchase a home, we may ask you if you’d like to be on the wait list for future homes

Step 5: Purchase the Home

  • Sign the purchase agreement
  • Open an escrow account with earnest-money (part of down payment)
  • Work with lender to secure CLT (lease-hold) loan
  • Complete the Housing Solutions online Homebuyer Course (everyone named on deed)
  • Perform desired inspection
  • Obtain homeowners insurance as outlined in ground lease
  • Review ground lease with an attorney

Step 6: Celebrate and Join the Neighborhood

  • Get to know your house!
  • Meet your neighbors!

See photos of the historic preservation and restoration of TCLT homes in Flagstaff, AZ